PDP-12

The PDP-12 – A Glimpse of a Computer From the Past

PDP or Programmed Data Processor refers to a series of mini-computers (a later coined term) that Digital Equipment Corporation created and sold between 1957 and 1990. They were called PDPs to avoid using the word “computer”. Computers at the time of release were huge and expensive. Ken Olsen, the creator of the PDP series, said computers users of the time”could not believe that in 1960 computers could do the job that could be built for less that $1 million” It was DEC's intention to market an inexpensive computer for smaller corporations and laboratories that would, in fact, do the job. The PDP series ranged from PDP-1 to PDP-16, with many technological advances along the way.

The PDP-12 itself, released in 1969, was a direct descendant of the Linc-8 (Laboratory Instrument Computer). Both mini-computers operated in two modes, one of those being LINC and the other PDP-8. These modes operated independently of each other on both mini-computers. Interestingly enough, the Linc-8 actually used two processors to accomplish the dual modes, while the PDP-12 was able to handle both modes on the same processor. This essentially made the Linc-8 obsolete and indeed, only a couple hundred were sold. Although not many of the PDP-12s were actually sold, they did manage to sell 755 units world-wide. These were fairly cheap for a computer during those days, selling for about $28,000. The PDP-12 had no direct successor and was the last mini-computer with the capability to operate in LINC mode. In fact, NEC skipped over PDP-13, possibly for superstitious reasons, but it is completely plausible that it was skipped to avoid confusion.

 

PDP-12 Computer

As stated earlier, the PDP-12 was much smaller than a traditional computer. It's cabinet was able to fit into a small laboratory. Within the cabinet, there was a 6.5 inch x 9 inch cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor, memory, the processor, an I/O bus, analog inputs, a relay buffer, tape drive, 8 inch floppy drives and a keyboard/printer. The ASR-33 keyboard/printer was connected to the I/O bus and could be accessed for both data input and output. It could accomplish input by means of a hole punch reader or by means of typing. It accomplished output by either printing characters on to paper or by punching holes into a card. Ten characters per second was the maximum transfer rate for input or output.

The memory capacity of the PDP-12 was initially 4 kilobytes using 12-bit words but could be upgraded in 4 kilobytes increments for a maximum total of 32 kilobytes of memory. In LINC mode the banks were divided into four 1024-word segments and only two of these segments were active at any given time. These segments included the Data Field, which was purely for indirectly accessed data, and the Information Field, which had all the directly accessible data and the executable program. Alternatively, the PDP-8 mode used 32 pages of 128 words each on 4 kilobytes of memory. If data was on a single page it could be accessed directly. If it was on different pages it could only be accessed indirectly. One of the advances that the PDP-12 made was that it was able to retain its memory contents and CPU registers when it was turned off.

The PDP-12 was aimed at scientists and engineers that had a lower budget and less space then some of the big laboratories and companies. The shortened words in the memory allowed for a smaller size, but also meant that programming these mini-computers was all done in machine language. At the time IBM was already coming up with easier ways to program, however their machines were much more expensive.

The main contribution of the PDP family in historical terms was the PDP-8 processor

This was small enough to fit into other devices. At the time of conception, IBM's mainframe computer was bulky and expensive and no one would consider using it for small applications such as controlling lights. The PDP family changed all this. It enabled many students, lab technicians, teachers, and even some of the general public to get their hands on a computer for the first time. Also, because of the inexpensive price, more and more labs and business were able to buy these machines to take on the task of some of their computing. This put IBM in the race to build a smaller, less expensive computer. Without the advent of the PDP family of mini-computers, personal computers as we know them today may not even exist.

 

Read the Smokeless Cigarette Review Today

The smokeless cigarette review is written by real people who have actually used the electronic cigarette. There are a lot of benefits to using a smokeless cigarette. Smokeless cigarettes do not produce second hand smoke. In fact, there is not any flame or ash either. Users of smokeless cigarettes only exhale an odorless water based vapor that evaporates in seconds. Smokeless cigarettes look and feel like a traditional cigarette, but they do not produce any smoke. With a smokeless cigarette you will never need another lighter or ashtray again. You can enjoy smoking a smokeless cigarette anywhere that you please.

Numerous Health Benefits Associated With Smokeless Cigarettes

The smokeless cigarette review will inform you about the numerous health benefits that smokeless cigarettes can provide. Electronic cigarettes do not contain as many harmful chemicals and toxins as traditional tobacco cigarettes. In fact, electronic cigarettes do not contain tar either. Smokers only get the nicotine that they want without all of the toxins.  You can say goodbye to your smoker’s cough.  You will no longer have to deal with traditional tobacco staining your teeth yellow. The walls of your home will no longer be stained yellow either. The buildup of smoke will no longer be on the windows of your home or your car. You can enjoy smoking around your family guilt free knowing that you are not causing them any harm with your smokeless cigarette.

Where You Can Buy Electronic Smokeless Cigarettes

Smokeless cigarettes can easily be found both online and in local stores. You may find more variety and options online. There are electronic cigarette starter kits available that provide you with all of the items that you need to make the switch from traditional tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes. There are three basic parts to a smokeless cigarette. The battery, the atomizer, and the refill cartridge all have their own very important role to play in making an electronic cigarette function properly. The battery in an electronic cigarette is rechargeable. It is responsible for powering the atomizer. The atomizer heats up the liquid nicotine that is stored in the refill cartridges. Refill cartridges are the only component of an electronic cigarette that you will need to purchase over and over again.

Break Free of Tobacco by Reading an Electronic Smokeless Cigarette Review

An electronic smokeless cigarette review can also provide you with a way to break free from tobacco forever. With a smokeless cigarette you will never have to sneak out to enjoy a smoke. You will no longer have to stand outside in the middle of winter to enjoy the nicotine you crave. Electronic cigarettes provide you with the nicotine that you want while avoiding all of the things that you hate about smoking. Electronic cigarettes are a lot cheaper than traditional cigarettes. Even refill cartridges for electronic smokeless cigarettes are cheaper than you may be expecting. Making the switch to electronic cigarettes could be one of the best decisions that you make for the future of your health and your future finances.

 

RSS Electronic Smoking Technology

  • Bladder Infection: a common disease in women Bladder Infection is a condition in which the urinary bladder gets inflamed
    Bladder Infection: a common disease in women Bladder Infection is a condition in which the urinary bladder gets inflamed. It is also known as cystitis. The condition is very common in woman. About 20% of the women section gets diagnosed with this at some point of time in their life. Men rarely get this kind […]
  • Ear candling – thermal auricular therapy Ear candling or ear coning is a therapy used to remove ear wax and other body toxic
    Ear candling – thermal auricular therapy Ear candling or ear coning is a therapy used to remove ear wax and other body toxic. This process has risk factor attached to it. Some experts say that this is an ineffective way and it only harms the body. However, there are experts who agree with this process. […]
  • Useful Information on Pituitary Gland Human body is regarded as the most complex system
    Useful Information on Pituitary Gland Human body is regarded as the most complex system. Every part of the body whether big or small in size, has its own function or purpose. Every part of the body plays an important role in the existence of every person. Everyone is not fully aware of the fact about […]
  • ECIG Rewrite 11
    You should consider changing that bad smoking habit in your life. And with the help of ECIG, commonly termed as electronic cigarettes, you can help yourself live on without craving for your tobacco cigarettes. The device came from China who designed the ECIG as an alternative for tobacco cigarettes. Smokers can smoke anytime and anywhere, […]
  • How Electronic Cigarettes Came to Exist
    Secondhand smoke has been an issue raised by health advocates for years already. People have done several anti-smoking movements and asked local government to ban public smoking. These acts are still going on with only a few smokers heeding these pleas. This issue is one opportunity for companies to create a solution. Something that will […]
  • Cervical cancer: Causes and symptoms Cancer is the most well-known disease
    Cervical cancer: Causes and symptoms Cancer is the most well-known disease. This disease has been prevalent since years, but yet there is no firm treatment or cure known for cancer. Though many development have taken place over years. This disease has various stages, but remains undetected for years. In many cases, it is detected in […]
  • ECIG (Electronic Cigarette)
    The electronic cigarette is a great alternative to tobacco cigarettes. It is identical to a real cigarette and also releases nicotine. Other than these, it gives the smoker the same feeling of smoking cigarettes. But the big difference is the electronic cigarettes are not tobacco – not that poisonous like the real cigarette. The electronic […]
  • ECIG Definition
    They are electronic device that contain nicotine, gives pleasure like real tobacco cigarettes and can be bought once for a prolonged use. The device contains nicotine, yes – an addictive chemical – but users of the device can limit their intake, thus helping themselves lessen the addiction until they reach the point that they don`t […]
  • ECIG Review 5
    ECIG, commonly called the electronic cigarettes, is known to be a good alternative to traditional cigarettes. It does not provide cancer-causing diseases and are healthy alternatives to tobacco in general. They are also cheap and quick remedies for smokers who want to give up smoking their tobacco cigarettes. Instead of hundred of harmful chemicals and […]
  • When to Use the V2 Cigs Coupon
    People sometimes ignore the existence of the V2 cigs coupon. Even when they are well aware what a coupon does, the coupons are still being put aside. Perhaps one should be educated as what the V2 cig coupons can do to help everybody realize that they can be benefited from it. The V2 cigs coupons […]
13